Saturday, 27th May 2017

Cathinones

MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone)

 

Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a designer stimulant drug closely related to Mephedrone in structure and effects.

Uchiyama et al[i] reported 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) among substances identified in designer drugs sold in Japan in 2006.  Westphal et al[ii] identified MDPV seized in Germany in 2007.  In the UK, Brandt et al[iii][iv] identified MDPV in NRG1 – a product sold as a legal high, claiming to contain naphyrone, shortly following the ban on Mephedrone and other substituted cathinones.  The ACMD had noted “These compounds cannot easily be included in a generic definition for the cathinone derivatives”  A drug-user forum first reports MDPV in 2005[v].

 

Chemistry & Incidence

Strano-Rossi et al[vi] developed a toxicological test for MDPV and metabolites catechol- and methyl-catechol pyrovalerone in urine.  In a similar study Meyer et al[vii] noted “Besides Germany, 3,4-methylene-dioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has appeared in many countries in Europe and Asia, indicating its worldwide importance for forensic and clinical toxicology.” Ojanperä et al noted presence in 26% of urine samples given by opioid-dependent patients receiving substitution therapy with a median concentration of 0.16mg/L, around 10% of comparable amphetamine concentrations.

 

Usage

No scientific studies have been conducted as to dosages of MDPV, the ACMD[viii] cites user-reports of dosages of 5mg or less. A Drug Users forum asks subscribers for reports on their experiences with MDPV[ix] with nearly 300x posts including 88x reports of experiences.  Most dosages used were small, in the range 2mg-15mg (users were advised to use a set of milligram scales to avoid overdosing), noting up to 200x doses could be obtained from one gram.  Those using over 30mg were more at risk of side-effects, several of those who used the largest amounts had done so in error via misjudging the dose, or had used over a prolonged period of time.

 

Injection im/iv (3 users) – 2mg-8.5mg – duration 4-8 hrs

Nasal – (31 users) – 4mg-340mg (typical 5-15mg) – 3-56 hrs

Oral – (15 users) – 4mg-250mg (typical 5-50mg) – 3-60 hrs

Sublingual - (5 users) – 3mg-18.5mg (typical 3-5mg) – 3-22hrs

Smoked - (13 users) – 2mg-32mg (typical 4-13mg) – 20min-16hrs

Rectal - (1user) – 3mg – 4 hrs

 

Effects

Karila & Reynaud[x], investivating the health consequences of cathininone (inc MDPV) usage, reported “There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may occur in recreational and chronic users. The addictive potential of designer drugs is not weak. Non-fatal overdoses and deaths related to… synthetic cathinones have been reported

 

A Drug Users forum asks subscribers for reports on their experiences with MDPV[xi] with nearly 300x posts including 88x reports of experiences.

 

Incidence of reported effects of MDPV

Symptom

n

Symptom

n

Symptom

n

Symptom

n

Craving

35

Sex Drive

17

Paranoia

9

Headache

5

Insomnia

28

Tremor

17

Weakness

8

Bruxism

5

Euphoria

27

Confusion

17

Dysphoria

8

Tolerance

5

Stimulated/alert

26

Lethargy

17

Obsess/Compulsion

7

Confidence

4

Tachycardia

26

Productivity

14

Panic Attack

7

Relaxed/Chilled

4

Concentration

24

Depress

13

Dizzy/Lightheaded

6

Psychosis

4

Comedown/Crash

20

Talkative/sociable

12

Nausea/Vomiting

6

Hallucinations

4

Anxiety

20

Anorexia

12

Breathing/Chest Pain

6

Numbness

3

Energy/Rush

19

Overstimulation

11

Sweat/Temperature

6

Erectile Dysfunction

3

Cramps

18

Mood Enhanced

9

Kidney Pain

5

Diarrhoea

3


[i] Uchiyama N, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Kawahara N, Goda Y. [2008] [Analysis of designer drugs detected in the products purchased in fiscal year 2006].[Article in Japanese] Yakugaku Zasshi. 128(10):1499-505

[ii] Westphal F, Junge T, Rösner P, Sönnichsen F, Schuster F. [2009] Mass and NMR spectroscopic characterization of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone: a designer drug with alpha-pyrrolidinophenone structure. Forensic Sci Int. 190(1-3):1-8. Epub 2009 Jun 4

[iii] Brandt SD, Sumnall HR, Measham F, Cole J [2010] Analyses of second-generation 'legal highs' in the UK: initial findings. Drug Test Anal. 2(8):377-82

[iv] Brandt SD, Wootton RC, De Paoli G, Freeman S. [2010] The naphyrone story: The alpha or beta-naphthyl isomer? Drug Test Anal. 2(10):496-502.

[v] http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=19972

[vi] Strano-Rossi S, Cadwallader AB, de la Torre X, Botrè F. [2010] Toxicological determination and in vitro metabolism of the designer drug methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 24(18):2706-14.

[vii] Meyer MR, Du P, Schuster F, Maurer HH. [2010] Studies on the metabolism of the α-pyrrolidinophenone designer drug methylenedioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) in rat and human urine and human liver microsomes using GC-MS and LC-high-resolution MS and its detectability in urine by GC-MS. J Mass Spectrom. 45(12):1426-42

[viii] Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs [2010]. Consideration of the cathinones. 31 Mar 2010. http://drugs.homeoffice.gov.uk/publication-search/acmd/ACMD-cathinones-report.html

[ix] http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=24638

[x] Karila L, Reynaud M. [2010] GHB and synthetic cathinones: clinical effects and potential consequences. Drug Test Anal. 2010 Dec 2. [Epub ahead of print]

[xi] http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=24638